Sidney Verba, whose pioneering research comparing political behavior among the world’s democracies became a classic book among students of politics, died on March 4 at his home in Cambridge, Mass. He was 86.
His death was confirmed by his wife, Cynthia Verba.
Professor Verba was also noted for directing the digital evolution of the Harvard University Library, which he led for 23 years in a parallel career while teaching at Harvard, his alma mater.
Beginning with “The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations,” which he wrote with Gabriel A. Almond in 1963 when he was Dr. Almond’s research assistant at Princeton University, Professor Verba created surveys into civic participation and political inequality that challenged conventions about American exceptionalism.
“The Civic Culture” sought to find a common denominator among stable democracies by systematically comparing data from multiple nations: two established ones (the United States and Britain); two emerging from autocratic governments (Germany and Italy); and an aspiring one (Mexico).
In 2011, almost a half-century later, Professor Verba reflected on his groundbreaking research in the Annual Review of Political Science, writing, “It applied a new technique (social surveys) never or rarely used across cultures, to a vast subject (political culture) never studied systematically, and it connected culture to democracy.”
The book concluded that constitutional government cannot be imposed unless a political culture promotes the institution of the family, fosters the organization of civil society and upholds democratic values. It also found that educated people were more likely to participate in politics.
Not all of the book’s conclusions proved correct, however.
“As education spread, we, and many other scholars of that period, expected that a new, more secular and rational world would emerge,” Professor Verba wrote in 2011. “The roles of religious, ethnic, and racial identity would diminish, and so would the incidence of clashes based on such characteristics, creating a more peaceful and democratic world. Looking back 50 years, it is clear that the prediction was wrong.”
His further collaborative research into citizen engagement and political equality produced nearly 20 more books. Though never best sellers, they became required reading for political science students. Among them are “The Changing American Voter” (1976) with Norman Nie and John Petrocik; “Participation and Political Equality: A Seven Nation Comparison” (1978), with Mr. Nie and Jae-on Kim; “Designing Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research” (1994), with Gary King and Robert Keohane; and “Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Democracy” (1995), with Kay Lehman Schlozman and Henry E. Brady.
“A giant in modern political science, Sid Verba’s passion was to understand — and further — participatory democratic citizenship,” said Theda R. Skocpol, a professor of sociology and government at Harvard.
Professor Verba taught at Harvard for more than 30 years, until 2007, when he retired as university professor emeritus of government. He was the director of the Harvard University Library from 1984 to 2007 — longer than anyone since Thaddeus William Harris, who ran it for about 25 years in the mid-19th century.
“Sidney Verba excelled at not just one career but two,” said Professor Schlozman, who teaches political science at Boston College.
Sidney Verba was born on May 26, 1932, in the East Flatbush section of Brooklyn to Morris and Recci (Salman) Verba, Jewish immigrants from what is now Moldova in Eastern Europe. They ran a curtain store but were always worried about money. His parents also worshiped Franklin D. Roosevelt.
“I did not meet a Republican until college,” Professor Verba once said.
He enrolled at Harvard after graduating from James Madison High School in Brooklyn. “It took me six months to realize that perhaps I did not belong there,” he said of the Cambridge campus, “by which time I felt I belonged.”
He graduated in 1953 with a degree in history and literature, having taken only one government course. He then enrolled in the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton, where he earned a master’s degree and his doctorate in politics.
He married Cynthia Winston, a fellow counselor he had met at a summer camp. She became a musicology scholar and director of fellowships for Harvard’s Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.
In addition to his wife, he is survived by their daughters, Margy, Ericka and Martina Verba; four grandchildren; and three great-grandchildren.
Professor Verba became a research assistant to Professor Almond out of financial necessity, he said. At the time, his wife, who was teaching at an elementary school, was pregnant, and Professor Verba needed a paying job.
His research proved so valuable that Professor Almond acknowledged his contribution by naming him co-author of “The Civic Culture.”
Professor Verba was an assistant and associate professor at Princeton and a full professor at Stanford and the University of Chicago before returning to Harvard in 1973.
When Harvard’s president, Derek C. Bok, chose him to run the library in 1984, Professor Verba had been familiar with it only as a scholar — the way a shopper might know a supermarket. “I depended on it completely for the stuff I had to live on,” he said years later, “but I didn’t have the foggiest notion how it got onto the shelves.”
While retaining his teaching post, he sought to widen access to the library through a partnership with Google to digitize the public domain collection. He also oversaw the development of an online library catalog.
At various times, Professor Verba was also chairman of the Harvard University Press, president of the American Political Science Association and chairman of the human rights committee of the National Academy of Sciences.
In 2006, when he announced his retirement, Professor Verba said he hoped to continue to study the role of interest groups in American politics.
“Academics,” he said, “are the only people I can think of for whom this sentence makes sense: ‘I’m hoping to get some time off so that I can get some work done.’ ”B:
【欧】【昀】【面】【无】【表】【情】【地】【扫】【了】【她】【一】【眼】，【无】【焦】【距】【的】【目】【光】【并】【在】【她】【身】【上】【停】【留】【超】【过】【一】【秒】，【随】【即】【就】【面】【向】【了】【花】【影】，【沉】【声】【道】：“【她】【在】【哪】？” 【花】【影】【用】【下】【巴】【比】【着】【前】【面】【的】【病】【房】：“【十】【二】【点】【钟】【方】【向】，【走】【三】【米】【有】【个】【门】，【进】【去】，【她】【在】【里】【面】。” 【欧】【昀】【轻】【轻】【颔】【首】，【提】【步】【走】【了】【进】【去】。 【年】【年】【傻】【愣】【在】【原】【地】，【难】【以】【置】【信】【地】【看】【着】【他】【的】【背】【影】。 【直】【到】【那】【扇】【门】【关】【闭】，
【渔】【夫】【摇】【头】【笑】【道】：“【难】【怪】，【在】【圣】【王】【朝】，【若】【是】【被】【那】【些】【官】【僚】【看】【到】【你】【们】【这】【般】【衣】【不】【遮】【体】，【那】【可】【是】【重】【罪】。” “【这】【里】【是】【圣】【王】【朝】？”【江】【忘】【川】【表】【现】【出】【一】【副】【很】【惊】【讶】【的】【样】【子】，【其】【实】【他】【连】【听】【都】【没】【听】【说】【过】【这】【个】【名】【字】，【只】【是】【想】【从】【渔】【夫】【的】【口】【中】【套】【出】【关】【于】【这】【个】【世】【界】【的】【信】【息】。 【渔】【夫】【很】【平】【易】【近】【人】，【对】【江】【忘】【川】【没】【有】【任】【何】【戒】【心】，【随】【口】【说】【道】：“【是】【啊】，【这】【里】【就】【是】
“【贵】【派】【在】【东】【周】【的】【人】，【看】【来】【很】【得】【力】？”【陈】【洛】【阳】【问】【道】。 【叶】【蚕】【眠】【行】【了】【一】【礼】：“【当】【不】【得】【陈】【教】【主】【夸】【赞】，【本】【观】【与】【对】【方】，【也】【只】【是】【合】【则】【两】【利】，【不】【过】【合】【作】【次】【数】【多】【了】，【信】【誉】【很】【有】【保】【障】。” 【陈】【洛】【阳】【微】【微】【颔】【首】，【转】【而】【问】【道】：“【然】【则】，【东】【周】【在】【贵】【派】【内】【部】【呢】？” 【叶】【蚕】【眠】【知】【道】，【陈】【洛】【阳】【是】【在】【问】，【东】【周】【方】【面】【如】【何】【知】【道】【青】【牛】【观】【主】【不】【在】【红】【尘】【界】【的】【消】【息】
【罢】【了】，【终】【究】【是】【过】【去】【了】，【况】【且】【她】【也】【已】【经】【嫁】【给】【了】【自】【己】，【自】【己】【也】【决】【不】【能】【亏】【待】【了】【了】【她】，【不】【说】【别】【的】，【就】【单】【单】【是】【她】【对】【于】【自】【己】【心】【中】【的】【那】【份】【救】【赎】，【自】【己】【也】【决】【不】【能】【让】【她】【就】【这】【样】【成】【天】【活】【在】【痛】【苦】【之】【中】！ 【如】【今】，【自】【己】【也】【得】【好】【好】【的】【对】【待】【她】，【以】【此】【来】【弥】【补】【她】【这】【么】【多】【年】【所】【受】【的】【苦】，【来】【将】【她】【那】【满】【布】【疮】【痍】【的】【心】【和】【身】【体】【一】【点】【一】【点】【的】【填】【满】【补】【好】，【让】【她】【不】【再】【如】【同】【之】香港马王中王资料大全【回】【到】【鲁】【国】【都】【城】【曲】【阜】，【孔】【子】【没】【有】【回】【家】，【直】【接】【去】【了】【鲁】【宫】。【先】【见】【鲁】【公】（【鲁】【昭】【公】），【再】【见】【季】【平】【子】。 【他】【是】【带】【着】【南】【宫】【敬】【叔】【和】【方】【忠】【两】【人】【去】【的】，【在】【鲁】【公】【那】【边】【吃】【了】【便】【饭】，【就】【匆】【匆】【往】【季】【府】【去】【了】。 【拜】【见】【完】【季】【平】【子】，【把】【方】【忠】、【南】【宫】【敬】【叔】【两】【人】【交】【给】【季】【平】【子】，【他】【算】【是】【交】【差】【了】。【然】【后】！【回】【家】。 【学】【堂】【依】【旧】，【人】【也】【依】【旧】，【可】【孔】【子】【的】【心】【境】【完】【全】【变】【了】。
【落】【中】【王】【朝】，【落】【家】，【一】【个】【绝】【美】【的】【身】【影】【行】【走】【在】【大】【院】【子】【中】。 【其】【面】【容】，【国】【色】【天】【香】、【倾】【国】【倾】【城】，【就】【算】【是】【比】【上】【女】【帝】【那】【样】【的】【绝】【世】【容】【貌】，【也】【不】【输】【丝】【毫】，【惹】【得】【院】【子】【中】【一】【些】【落】【家】【的】【年】【轻】【子】【弟】【时】【不】【时】【偷】【瞄】【而】【去】。 【虽】【然】【她】【的】【胸】【脯】【有】【点】【平】【就】【是】【了】 【她】【是】【落】【珊】【珊】，【落】【家】【年】【轻】【一】【辈】【中】【的】【扛】【把】【子】，【也】【是】【拥】【有】【自】【身】【道】【的】【天】【才】，【得】【天】【道】【恩】
【然】【而】【此】【刻】【诞】【生】【的】，【正】【是】【极】【锐】【之】【王】。 【铁】【剑】【呼】【啸】【着】【撕】【裂】【空】【气】，【留】【下】【殷】【红】【和】【悲】【鸣】。 【自】【以】【为】【通】【玄】【巅】【峰】【的】【黑】【渎】【怎】【么】【也】【没】【有】【想】【到】【事】【态】【会】【遭】【到】【这】【种】【变】【化】，【他】【脸】【上】【苍】【白】，【即】【使】【得】【到】【澎】【湃】【生】【命】【修】【复】，【始】【终】【无】【法】【抵】【消】【利】【刃】【造】【成】【的】【诅】【咒】。 【是】【的】，【他】【的】【匕】【首】【上】【涂】【有】【剧】【毒】。 【那】【是】【能】【够】【瞬】【间】【将】【一】【名】【灵】【武】【毒】【杀】【的】【剧】【毒】，【即】【使】【是】【太】【虚】，【也】【要】
【两】【人】【的】【对】【弈】【最】【终】【以】【三】【目】【大】【获】【全】【胜】【而】【结】【束】。 “【你】【去】【找】【萧】【云】【娘】【了】？”【柳】【无】【戒】【起】【身】【后】【第】【一】【句】【话】【就】【问】【道】。 “【嗯】。”【柳】【无】【心】【只】【是】【点】【头】【答】【应】【了】【一】【下】，【并】【没】【有】【过】【多】【的】【解】【释】【什】【么】。 “【找】【了】【也】【好】，【师】【父】【这】【辈】【子】【可】【能】【最】【遗】【憾】【的】【事】【情】【就】【是】【没】【能】【回】【来】【见】【她】【一】【次】【吧】。”【柳】【无】【戒】【好】【像】【想】【起】【了】【什】【么】。 “【嗯】。”【柳】【无】【心】【还】【是】【点】【了】【点】【头】【没】【有】【说】