文章来源: 科学传播局    发布时间: 2019-12-11 09:47:02|生财有道黑白图库新版跑狗   【字号:         】


  When Paine Field, about 25 miles north of Seattle in Everett, Wash., was born in the 1930s as a New Deal project, it was envisioned as a major commercial airport for the region. But that never happened. Instead, it became known as the place where Boeing offers “North America’s only publicly available commercial jet assembly plant tour.”

  That is about to change. Thanks to private investment, Paine Field is finally set to offer air service to the public. A sleek, new, million two-gate terminal was built by Propeller Airports, a Seattle company, and commercial flights are set to begin this month.

  Brett Smith, Propeller’s founder and chief executive, expects that travelers will be attracted by the convenience of avoiding traffic jams near Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. “No reason why tax dollars should be used to build passenger travel while there’s private-sector money ready and willing to do it,” he said.

  As governments reduce spending on infrastructure, private companies are moving into airports big and small, paying for private terminals with new types of services and teaming up with local agencies to renovate existing terminals. The so-called public-private partnerships, or P3s, have created new possibilities for airports, which have struggled for years to find the money to improve terminals and accommodate an increase in passengers and cargo. An Airport Council International report released in 2017 estimated that airports would need almost 0 billion for capital projects over the next five years, but would only be able to finance about half that amount.

  The Paine Field Passenger Terminal, which will serve Alaska Airlines starting early this month, and United Airlines later in March, is just one example of how private money is affecting airport offerings.

  Through a subsidiary, the Schiphol Group of the Netherlands owns Terminal 4 at Kennedy International Airport; American Airlines owns the airport’s Terminal 8. The Private Suite at Los Angeles International Airport opened nearly two years ago, offering those who can afford it a luxurious respite from the crowds at the main terminals. And Denver International Airport is updating the ticket counters, security screening areas, restaurants and shops at Jeppesen Terminal with the help of private money.

  The flow of private money into airports may mean more dining and shopping options for passengers, but it can have downsides. Since private operators try to maximize non-aeronautical revenue, some creature comforts may be lacking.

  “We’re not at the level of pay toilets, but operators may make it intentionally difficult to find a water fountain,” said Henry Harteveldt, founder of Atmosphere Research Group, a travel industry analysis firm in San Francisco.

  The issue of government support for public projects was thrown into sharp relief recently, when Gov. Gavin Newsom of California, a Democrat, announced that he was scaling back a billion project for a high-speed bullet train and the Trump administration said it was considering legal options for recovering .5 billion in federal money that has already been spent on the project.

  Airport financing works somewhat differently than investment in public works projects. A government covers construction and some maintenance costs, but airports are expected to be self-sufficient otherwise and to find other sources of revenue.

  As many as a third of the airports in the United States were privately owned before the Great Depression and the infusion of New Deal spending, according to Deborah Douglas, the curator of science and technology at the M.I.T. Museum who has studied airports between the world wars.

  Wartime needs changed the dynamic.

  “The underlying principle of airport operations, beginning with World War II, was that local governments should own and operate the airports, and the federal government should provide the capital for construction and some maintenance costs,” said Peter Kirsch, a partner at the law firm Kaplan, Kirsch and Rockwell who specializes in transportation.

  Since then, Mr. Kirsch said, there has been an antipathy toward private ownership of, and investment in, public infrastructure. Local governments or airport authorities borrowed to pay for construction. But changes in the economy and in tax laws, he added, meant that “the advantage of public sector borrowing over private sector borrowing has narrowed.” Because two major government sources of financing for airports — facility fees and Airport Improvement Program grants — have remained at the same levels for years, the money does not go as far as it once did.

  Short-term appropriations from Congress make it difficult for airport officials to plan long-term projects. Revenue from restaurants, stores, taxis, rental cars and parking is subject to less oversight. And when third parties maintain private terminals, airports and passengers reap benefits without incurring additional expense.

  Prospective users of Paine Field Passenger Terminal approve of the arrangement. Minda Zetlin, a writer who lives about 15 miles northeast of the airport and nearly 50 miles north of Sea-Tac, said that traveling to the larger airport usually required her to use a car service, at an additional cost of 0 each way.

  She said some of her neighbors traveled 65 miles to the airport in Bellingham, Wash., 20 miles from the Canadian border, rather than fight traffic into Seattle. “Sure, when there’s commercial service out of Everett we’ll look at that as an attractive alternative,” she wrote in an email.

  Yves Junqueira, the founder and chief executive of a Seattle start-up, said he traveled at least once a month to San Francisco and San Jose, Calif. He said he alternated between Delta Air Lines and Alaska Airlines. “I have to go to a different terminal, check in on different machines, go to a different gate, go through T.S.A. on a different line,” he wrote in an email, referring to Transportation Security Administration checkpoints. Traveling from Paine Field, he said, might be more efficient.

  The Private Suite, which opened at Los Angeles International Airport in 2017 and is owned and operated by Gavin de Becker and Associates, a private security company, offers a less-egalitarian, membership-based approach.

  For an annual fee of ,500, with additional charges for each flight, a member and up to three immediate relatives have access to a private lounge, an on-call physician, complimentary manicures and massages, free meals and valet parking and other perks. There is a dedicated T.S.A. security line and a separate area for clearing customs. Passengers are chauffeured directly to their aircraft along the tarmac in a BMW 7 sedan.

  Since May, United Airlines passengers have also been able to use the service, although the prices are different.

  “We don’t pay attention to what price ticket you buy,” said Anthony Toth, managing director of digital sales for United Airlines. The service is open to any United Airlines passenger departing from Los Angeles at a cost of 5 for domestic flights and 0 for international flights. Private Suite expedites the checking of bags, accepting them up to 45 minutes before domestic flights and an hour before international flights.

  Private Suite expects to generate more than million dollars for Los Angeles World Airports, which operates Los Angeles International, during its 10-year lease. “Our service improves security and congestion for all of LAX’s passengers, and it’s fully funded by those who create the most congestion issues, high-risk travelers,” said Amina Belouizdad, Private Suite’s chief commercial officer.

  At Denver International Airport, construction began in July at Jeppesen Terminal, where the Spanish company Ferrovial is working with JLC Infrastructure and Saunders Concessions on various upgrades, including improved security and new shopping and dining options. The consortium expects to choose, oversee and maintain the terminal’s roughly 50 stores and restaurants, for three decades.

  The arrangement allows the airport “to shift the risk for cost and schedule for the very complicated construction” to the public-private partnership, Alex Renteria, an airport spokeswoman, said in an email.

  Eliot Lees, vice president and managing director of aviation for ICF, a professional consulting, technology and marketing firm, said that attracting new air service was a major priority for airports. That might mean extra revenue for airports from additional flights and an increase in spending by passengers.

  Still, private terminals require the same level of maintenance as their publicly owned counterparts. Passengers at Terminal 4 at Kennedy Airport discovered that in January 2018 after a snowstorm caused bottlenecks and delayed flights. A water main break at the terminal prolonged the recovery.

  Roel Huinink, the president and chief executive of the Schiphol Group subsidiary that owns the terminal, said the water main had been repaired. The terminal also did a full risk analysis to make sure the problem did not reoccur, Mr. Huinink said.

  Still, a private terminal cannot expect a public bailout if things do not work out financially. And because it is so difficult to leave and re-enter the concourse, a passenger is hostage to the airport and whoever is running it, said Mr. Harteveldt, the industry analyst.



  生财有道黑白图库新版跑狗【天】【下】【没】【有】【人】【不】【知】【道】【屠】【龙】【刀】,【但】【是】【谁】【也】【不】【敢】【说】【这】【就】【是】【天】【下】【第】【一】【刀】。 【因】【为】【赵】【无】【心】【还】【活】【着】! 【只】【要】【他】【还】【活】【着】,【没】【有】【一】【把】【已】【经】【存】【在】【的】【刀】【敢】【称】【霸】【天】【下】【第】【一】【的】。 【赵】【无】【心】【并】【不】【是】【无】【心】,【而】【是】【他】【的】【心】【早】【已】【经】【被】【一】【块】【块】【寒】【铁】【石】【所】【融】【化】。 【没】【有】【人】【知】【道】【赵】【无】【心】【是】【怎】【么】【打】【造】【一】【把】【刀】【的】,【但】【所】【有】【人】【都】【知】【道】【赵】【无】【心】【打】【造】【出】【来】【的】【刀】【一】【定】【会】【引】

【张】【小】【风】【自】【然】【也】【是】【明】【白】【木】【逍】【所】【说】【的】【是】【什】【么】【意】【思】,【随】【即】【拍】【了】【拍】【胸】【膛】,【面】【带】【自】【信】【的】【说】【道】,“【放】【心】【吧】,【交】【给】【我】【了】。” 【听】【到】【张】【小】【风】【的】【话】,【大】【黄】【的】【叫】【声】【中】【更】【是】【兴】【奋】【了】。 【还】【是】【宿】【舍】【旁】【的】【那】【座】【小】【山】【上】,【大】【黄】【激】【动】【的】【大】【口】【大】【口】【吃】【着】【张】【小】【风】【烤】【好】【的】【兽】【肉】,【那】【样】【子】【看】【在】【张】【小】【风】【眼】【里】【也】【是】【一】【阵】【无】【语】,【这】【沉】【睡】【了】【一】【年】【刚】【醒】【过】【来】,【怕】【是】【大】【黄】【定】【然】

【其】【一】【就】【现】【在】【的】【形】【势】【有】【所】【转】【变】,【如】【今】【到】【现】【在】,【一】【切】【将】【成】【定】【局】,【暗】【夜】【的】【首】【领】【已】【经】【看】【向】【了】【云】【师】【姐】,【云】【师】【姐】【看】【见】【了】【首】【领】【的】【眼】【神】,【摇】【了】【摇】【头】,【表】【示】【不】【是】【自】【己】【做】【的】。 【暗】【夜】【的】【首】【领】【皱】【了】【皱】【眉】【头】,【在】【看】【见】【了】【云】【师】【姐】【的】【眼】【神】【之】【后】,【什】【么】【都】【没】【说】,【只】【是】【回】【身】【看】【向】【了】【皇】【甫】【辰】。 【皇】【甫】【辰】【嘴】【角】【牵】【动】【着】【一】【抹】【笑】,【云】【师】【姐】【看】【见】【了】,【越】【来】【越】【害】【怕】【这】【个】

  “【在】【的】,【你】【找】【老】【爷】【有】【事】【情】?【我】【去】【找】【他】。”【那】【个】【打】【扫】【卫】【生】【的】【阿】【姨】【在】【见】【到】【陆】【子】【墨】【之】【后】,【便】【赶】【紧】【对】【陆】【子】【墨】【说】【道】。 【生】【怕】【怠】【慢】【了】【陆】【子】【墨】。 “【好】,【那】【就】【麻】【烦】【了】。”【陆】【子】【墨】【见】【状】,【便】【对】【阿】【姨】【赶】【紧】【道】【谢】。 “【不】【麻】【烦】【不】【麻】【烦】【的】,【应】【该】【的】,【您】【稍】【等】【啊】。”【那】【个】【打】【扫】【卫】【生】【的】【阿】【姨】【说】【完】【之】【后】,【便】【赶】【紧】【去】【楼】【上】【找】【了】【顾】【怀】【斌】。 【陆】【子】【墨】【见】生财有道黑白图库新版跑狗【余】【宇】【的】【意】【思】【就】【是】【将】【整】【个】【力】【量】【集】【中】【起】【来】,【对】【付】【幽】【帝】【和】【鬼】【界】【的】【人】。【至】【于】【星】【盟】,【禁】【地】【还】【有】【其】【他】【人】,【包】【括】【仙】【界】,【暂】【时】【先】【不】【管】。 【大】【家】【静】【静】【的】【听】【着】。 【他】【继】【续】【说】【道】“【我】【们】【现】【在】,【位】【于】【上】【古】【道】【场】【的】【巨】【城】,【不】【过】【二】【十】【个】【的】【样】【子】,【我】【们】【的】【人】【手】,【也】【多】【数】【在】【巨】【城】【内】。【他】【们】【第】【一】【拨】【的】【攻】【击】,【可】【能】【不】【是】【针】【对】【巨】【城】,【但】【不】【用】【理】【会】。 【我】【们】【的】【办】

  “【但】【我】【存】【在】【的】【方】【式】【与】【你】【理】【解】【的】【程】【序】【不】【太】【一】【样】。” “【从】【某】【种】【意】【义】【上】【而】【言】,【你】【可】【以】【将】【我】【理】【解】【为】【人】【工】【智】【能】。” “【但】【我】【存】【在】【的】【意】【义】,【就】【是】【为】【了】【世】【界】【运】【转】。” “【这】【方】【实】【验】【场】【在】【化】【假】【为】【真】,【融】【入】【真】【实】【世】【界】【时】【出】【了】【岔】【子】。” “【我】【为】【了】【护】【住】【这】【方】【试】【验】【场】,【跟】【随】【世】【界】【在】【时】【空】【长】【河】【里】【漂】【流】。” “【我】【在】【时】【空】【长】【河】【里】【漂】【流】【的】【时】

  【虽】【然】【觉】【得】【这】【脚】【角】【球】【郑】【彬】【不】【会】【传】【给】【自】【己】,【但】【球】【传】【出】【来】【的】【第】【一】【时】【间】,【吴】【泽】【还】【是】【做】【出】【了】【积】【极】【的】【拼】【抢】【动】【作】。 【球】【刚】【一】【传】【出】【来】,【站】【在】【吴】【泽】【身】【边】【的】【赵】【磊】【磊】【就】【横】【向】【往】【另】【一】【侧】【跑】,【负】【责】【防】【守】【他】【的】【防】【守】【球】【员】【也】【跟】【着】【他】【一】【起】【跑】【开】,【以】【至】【于】【这】【一】【块】【区】【域】【只】【剩】【下】【吴】【泽】【和】【一】【对】【一】【盯】【防】【他】【的】【防】【守】【球】【员】。 【球】【传】【到】【禁】【区】【内】【之】【后】,【吴】【泽】【才】【判】【断】【出】【这】【个】【球】【有】

  373 【感】【觉】【一】【切】【都】【像】【是】【做】【梦】【一】【样】,【关】【于】【自】【己】【这】【十】【个】【月】【以】【来】【的】【经】【历】【全】【都】【是】【假】【的】【一】【样】。【早】【上】【起】【床】,【洗】【漱】,【然】【后】【等】【着】【吃】【饭】 【感】【觉】【这】【一】【切】【又】【回】【到】【了】【自】【己】【的】【世】【界】【一】【样】【看】【起】【来】【很】【平】【和】,【却】【是】【自】【己】【最】【颓】【废】【的】【时】【候】。【或】【者】【说】【我】【真】【的】【只】【是】【做】【梦】?【那】【种】【真】【实】【的】【感】【觉】,【真】【的】【就】【像】【是】【近】【在】【眼】【前】【一】【样】 “【赶】【快】【吃】!【吃】【完】【之】





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